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Chemistry Class 11 CBSE Syllabus 2021-2022: Students Read

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The first step towards the organization of any exam is to gain knowledge of its syllabus. The syllabus of Chemistry is pretty vast and the aspirants are suggested to cover the whole syllabus without skipping anything as all the topics are correlated from a competitive exam point of view. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone major changes over the years and the applicants must check the latest syllabus for the identical. This article provides the applicants the flawless and latest details related to the Chemistry Class 11 CBSE Syllabus 2021-2022.

 

 

Unit-wise Chemistry Class 11 CBSE Syllabus 2021

The class 11 Chemistry subject syllabus consists of copious major topics divided into 14 separate units. Candidates can check all these units and the topics that they traverse from below.

 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry 11th Class

Meaning and Scope of Chemistry, Laws of Chemical Combination, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Concept of Elements, Atomic and Molecular Masses, Nature of Matter, Empirical and Molecular Formula, Atoms and Molecules, Percentage Composition, Mole Concept and Molar Mass, Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry and Calculations Based On It

 

Structure of Atom 11th Class

Bohr’s Model and Its Boundaries, Dual Nature of Matter and Light, Shells and Sub-Shells, Quantum Numbers, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, De Broglie’s Relationship, Shapes of s, p and d Orbital, Rules For Filling Electrons In Orbital- Aufbau Principle, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Electronic Configuration of Atoms, Concept of Orbital, and Hund’s Rule, Stability of Half-Filled and Completely-Filled Orbital

 

Classification of Elements in Properties 11th Class

Modern Periodic Law, Present Form of Periodic Table, Periodic Trends In Properties of Elements-Atomic Radii, Inert Gas Radii, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Ionic Radii, Valency, Electro-negativity, Ionization Enthalpy, Nomenclature of Elements With Atomic Number Above 100

 

Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure 11th Class

Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, Valence Electrons, Bond Parameters, Polar Character of Covalent Bond, Valence Bond Theory, Concept of Hybridization Involving s, Lewis Structure, Covalent Character of Ionic Bond, Geometry of Covalent Molecules, p and d-Orbital, Shapes of Some Simple Molecules, Molecular Orbital Theory of Homo-Nuclear Diatomic Molecules, VSEPR Theory, Hydrogen Bond

 

 States of Matter: Gases and Liquids 11th Class

The states of Matter,  Avogadro’s Law, Boyle’s Law, Types of Bonding, Melting and Boiling Points, Role of Gas Laws In Elucidating The Concept of The Molecule, Intermolecular Interactions, Charles Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, Empirical Derivation of Gas Equation, Ideal Behaviour, Deviation From Ideal Behaviour, Kinetic Energy and Molecular Speeds Liquid State, Avogadro’s Number, Ideal Gas Equation, Liquefaction of Gases, Critical Temperature, Vapour Pressure, Viscosity, and Surface Tension

 

Chemical Thermodynamics 11th Class

Concepts of System and Types of Systems, Extensive and Intensive Properties, State Functions, Work, Surroundings, Heat, Energy, Laws of Thermodynamics, and Dilution, Measurement of ∆U and ∆H, Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation, Formation, Atomization, Sublimation, Combustion, Heat Capacity and Specific Heat, Internal Energy and Enthalpy, Phase Transition, Ionization, Enthalpy of Bond Dissociation, Entropy As A State Function, Gibb’s Energy Change For Spontaneous and Non-Spontaneous Processes, Criteria For Equilibrium

Equilibrium 11th Class

Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium, Equilibrium In Physical and Chemical Processes, Factors Affecting Equilibrium- LeChatelier’s Principle, Law of Mass Action, Ionic Equilibrium- Ionization of Acids and Bases, Strong and Weak Electrolytes, Acid Strength, Solubility Product, Degree of Ionization, Ionization of Poly Basic Acids, Equilibrium Constant, Concept of pH, Henderson Equation, Hydrolysis of Salts, Common Ion Effect, Buffer Solution

Redox Reactions 11th Class

Concept of Oxidation and Reduction, Redox Reactions, Loss and Gain of Electrons and Change In Oxidation Number, Balancing Redox Reactions, Oxidation Number, Redox Reactions Applications

Hydrogen 11th Class

Position of Hydrogen In Periodic Table, Occurrence, Isotopes, Preparation, Physical and Chemical Properties of Water, Properties, and Uses of Hydrogen, Heavy Water, Hydrides-Ionic Covalent and Interstitial, Hydrogen Peroxide-Preparation, Structure, Reactions and Hydrogen As A Fuel

s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) 11th Class

General Introduction, Occurrence, Anomalous Properties of The First Element of Each Group, Uses, Electronic Configuration Trends In Chemical Reactivity With Oxygen, Trends In The Variation of Properties, Diagonal Relationship, Water, Hydrogen and Halogens, Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds, Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate & Their Industrial Uses, Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium

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Academic Essay Writing for English Language Learners

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In this age of technology and social media, we seem adept at expressing ourselves. Text messages, emails, comments, and reviews are all outlets for our thoughts and opinions. But when we need to form an argument on the page, these skills are not enough.

A structured and formal way of writing comes with practice and learning. If you wish to obtain those top grades for your college or university essays, you must master formal writing techniques. We have the best tips for you to get yourself familiar with academic writing style. And reach excellence in it.

  1. Refrain from adopting a distinct voice

Creative writing is different from academic in the sense that it has a certain tone to it. The writers incorporate some of their personality and particular style into their work by doing that. When writing academically, personal touches are not encouraged too much. They distract from the main argument and hinders understanding for a wide range of readers. Thus, it is one of the things you must avoid.

  1. Avoid colloquialisms

In informal writing, it is common to use words like “mega” or “alright”. Or phrases that we use casually speak such as “it was a big deal”. These are samples of colloquialisms and do not belong in academic essay writing. Although spotting them can sometimes be difficult you must make an extra effort to do so. Using them creates limitations for your readers as everyone will not understand the references. This increases the chances of being misinterpreted.

  1. Hyperbole and exaggeration are also distracting

These two elements present the same issues as the previous points. It is best to keep to the exact facts when writing an academic essay. Or else a phrase like “the most important…” can be perceived as misinformation and raise questions about your knowledge. Any statements you include must be based on evidence instead of speculation.

  1. Punctuation and personal quirks

Academic writing has a certain standardized format which can be considered a writer’s biggest advantage. However, including personal intonations can bring down its effect significantly. Rhetorical questions, capitalizing for emphasis, or unnecessary exclamation points should best be avoided. Focus upon the subject, instead of distracting your reader with these writing devices. Academic pieces are not fit places for overwhelming expressions as you must have a setting consisting of logic and facts.

  1. Using personal pronouns

Upholding the “fact-value” distinction is crucial in academic essays. Which refers to not overshadowing your work with personal opinion instead of facts and evidence. This can confuse the readers as to where the logic ends, and writer’s own perspective starts. The validity of your essay can be questioned upon these basis. Your focus should be removed from personal experience therefore use pronouns like “I, me, mine, or my” sparingly.

  1. Make your arguments clear and precise

Inexperienced writers tend to fill their essay with unnecessary vocabulary. Lengthy sentences and complicated words cannot replace genuine knowledge. Keep the purpose of academic writing in mind which is to clarify the argument you present. Your goal should be keeping the points direct and simple enough to be both comprehensive and impactful.

  1. Use sources and references correctly

An argument will not be strong enough without references to support it in an academic essay. Collect clear passages and quotations from literary and authentic sources. Also be attentive towards the formatting you use while referencing. Make sure you follow a style which is required by your instructor like APA, MLA, or Harvard, among others. Your chosen formatting will remain consistent throughout the essay.

Conclusion 

These were the basics of writing an academic essay which you can master by practicing diligently. Once you are adept enough you can make slight changes according to the nature of different projects. But the rules will largely remain the same. Further guidance can also be had by reaching out to professional academic writing services. Your requirements will be met by field experts there who are well-versed in both structure and material. With our guidelines and expert assistance, you will be able to acquire the grades you desire. Not only that but your writing skills can be improved to a great extent. Which will help immensely in future employment prospects.

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How to pass AMC MCQ exam

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How to pass AMC MCQ exam

Are you wondering how to prepare for the AMC MCQ exam? Many students find it hard to prepare and pass the AMC MCQ exam. In this blog, we will help you understand the points to follow when attempting an MCQ exam.

Many students worry about how to pass AMC MCQ exam. Here are a few tips to assist you.

That’s something everyone knows

The most essential thing is to construct examination questions so that the correct response is based on an understanding of the content or anything directly referred to in the question (with texts or reading items for example). 

Some pupils may have sufficient previous knowledge to know the proper response instantly or to eliminate the erroneous one; “Everyone knows that the Earth is all around!” 

You may avoid this problem with texts and readings by not inquiring about facts – “what is the Earth’s form?” – but by referring instead to the text: “What is the author saying about the form of the Earth?”

Too long to be incorrect

When generating questions with multiple choices, the proper answer is sometimes significantly lengthier than the other questions. Why does that happen? Perhaps because the correct response is more subtle than usual. As a lecturer, the distractors do not want to be perceived mistakenly as accurate, which is why you often make them less subtle and shorter than the appropriate response. This leads to brief phrases. A bright student must observe and think: “It’s just too long for the answer to be erroneous.” This mistake may be avoided in the next paragraph.

Never say never

Beware of your choice of term. Words like ‘never,’ ‘everything’ and ‘nobody’ are generalized phrases so insistent that they are almost always mistaken. 

This does not apply to all the examinations, of course, but in principle, try to avoid your replies containing these terms. 

Avoiding these terms can also improve the subtlety and duration of your distractors. You find synonyms which are more or less the same thing, but which are less emphatic: e.g. ‘extremely rare,’ ‘most of the time,’ ‘most of the time’ or ‘none of them.’

Read the Entire Question

Before looking at the answer possibilities, read the multi-choice question in its full. Often students assume that they know what a question is asking and go directly to the logical response before reading it. 

This is a major error, and multiple-choice examinations may cost you a lot. Before examining reply options, read every question completely.

Choose Better Options

Before selecting a final answer, please read each answer option. Some may not feel like a trainer, yet students make a common error. As mentioned in the preceding section, each multiple-choice question is typically best answered. If you presume that you know the answer correctly immediately, you may not finally choose the best answer without first reviewing each response choice.

Make Educated Guess

Do an educated estimate on any question you’ve been unsure of if this doesn’t count against your score. 

Note: Incorrect responses are punished on some standardized examinations. For example, 2 points might be worth the correct response, 0 points unanswered, and -1 points wrong response. You can make a trained estimate on these exams, but only when at least one or two wrong responses can be eliminated.

Prefer Your First Goal

After reading the question, it’s advisable to stick to your initial answer. It is typically unproductive to think again and again and modify your response. 

However, this does not always indicate that your initial option of reply is the right decision. Although multiple exams are not normally intended to deceive or confuse pupils, they are intended to measure the knowledge and skills of pupils. 

For this purpose, the most frequently false replies to the selections or responses that appear reasonable but ultimately inaccurate, are typically included in the response alternatives supplied.

Remove Wrong Points

Remove reply alternatives that are 100% sure are wrong prior to picking the reply that you think is accurate. Even if you assume that you know the proper answer, first removing those responses that you know are wrong will make sure that your reply is the proper one. By using the removal method, not only saves time, it boosts your chances of choosing the correct answer significantly.

 

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9 Tactics to Enhance Your Teaching Style in College

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teaching in college

Many colleges and universities had to rapidly shift to remote learning with the outbreak of Covid-19 last year. And most are still following the same routine in a number of regions across the globe. This temporary yet uncertain cancellation of college life as we knew it took some time to get used to. For both students and teachers, the transition has been massive and unsettling.

Educational institutes have been focused on enhancing and collecting material for better virtual learning. The resources focus on molding technology in the most beneficial way for students. How to create discussions, record lectures, and conduct exams. While these actions are necessary to function within the current educational scenario, other aspects need to be focused upon too.

Teachers are the axis of the process of imparting knowledge. In this time of distress and isolation, connecting emotionally is as important as maintaining an electronic link. Only implementing technological tools and techniques without empathy behind them will be insufficient for this era’s teaching endeavors. The impacts of these transitions have affected students emotionally and psychologically, as well as physically. The role of instructors is always important, yet it become even more critical in times of crisis.

Go beyond academic methods, especially at a higher level where students are more aware and facing tough decisions. It might take some extra time and effort, and some students will be difficult to reach towards. Yet that is the most genuine way a teacher can truly convey life lessons to their pupils. Consider it your responsibility to balance the student’s emotional and mental load. And guide them forward so they can have someone to look up to in the darkest moments.

1. Connect through emails

With technology at hand it is easier to connect with your students on a personal level. Talk to them via email or messages to reassure that you are there to listen to any issues. An indication that they can reach out for help without hesitation can bring unimaginable motivation.

Tools like dissertation writing help, homework guidance, and reading resources are all helpful for students. However, they cannot replace the direct influence of a teacher’s encouragement. Typing an email does not take much time on your part yet makes a huge difference.

2. Share with them

Exchange with them conversations apart from ones focused on academic topics. Share with them the ways your schedule is changed. And how you are dealing with the new changes. This makes you more human and allow students to relate with you in a lighthearted and casual manner.

3. Provide challenge and support

Instructors often have to balance support and rigor equally. In the current situation, support is more essential for students than rigor. Continuing the delivery of lessons is one thing but increasing work amount can cause stress in the long run.

The completion of the set curriculum should be not fixated upon for now. The more important factors are maintaining the flow and providing emotional support to students. The academic pace is something which can be taken up once conditions regain normalcy. But any harm to emotional and mental well-being of student’s can severely affect our future.

4. Repeat concepts taught previously

This is also a good time to repeat the lessons you have already delivered. There is more opportunity for one-on-one discussion in online classes. Reviewing an old topic will reveal to you how much every student managed to benefit from it.

Ones who are slower in pace can also catch up with anything they missed. And they will be able to ask question and clarify any doubts which they could not voice before. A virtual environment makes the shyest of students feel secure and share their opinions or queries.

5. Spread hope and optimism

Make a conscious effort to sow the seeds of positivity in your students. Your words will mean a lot to them and will serve as beacons to keep their morale up. Use carefully chosen phrases while speaking of the future.

Instead of indicating that things might not be changing anytime soon make them perceive otherwise. Use statements like “when you return back in fall…” rather than “if you come back…”. It will help students think of happier and normal times to look forward to.

6. Do not ignore the crisis

It might be easier to go on and pretend that nothing out of the way is happening. But that is certainly not the wiser and sensible choice. Talking about the pandemic and the fears surrounding it will help both you and your students. You can also work on correcting the false information about the topic. Spreading awareness will helps lessen the anxiety which comes when dealing with the unknown.

7. Create a community

Acknowledge the fact that students have not only left behind an academic routine but also other essential activities. College campuses are the hub of meetings and extracurricular activities. Even a random walk to class with a friend is filled with gossip and conversations about the newest trends. Exact replication of these moments is impossible. But a discussion board can help regain some of those feelings.

8. Recommend external help

If students are going through personal struggles, advise them to not be scared of asking for professional help. Reaching out to mental health experts and counsellors is necessary for those suffering from depression.

But often enough students are too afraid to ask for help. Encourage them to face their fears in a mature way. If the stress is due to academic burden, a reliable assignment writing service can also be of great help.

9. Bonding allows for better learning

The confidence and trust you gain from students help them become better scholars. With their insecurities gone the mind will open up to new possibilities and concepts automatically. Create an environment in which they can ask questions and share opinions without feeling self-conscious.

Conclusion

Through these ways, you can enhance your teaching methods to a whole new level. The right energy will nurture the brains around you and urge them to perform to the best of their abilities.

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